托福TPO14阅读长难句TPO14: Children and Advertising
1. The Independent Television Commission, regulator of television
advertising in the United Kingdom, has criticized advertisers for
“misleadingness”—creating a wrong impression either intentionally or
unintentionally—in an effort to control advertisers’ use of techniques that make
it difficult for children to judge the true size, action, performance,or
construction of a toy.
2. However, research has shown that children often have difficulty
understanding disclaimers: children may interpret the phrase “when part of a
nutritionally balanced breakfast” to mean that the cereal is required as a
necessary part of a balanced breakfast.
3. The author George Comstock suggested that less than a quarter of
children between the ages of six and eight years old understood standard
disclaimers used in many toy advertisements and that disclaimers are more
readily comprehended when presented in both audio and visual formats.4. A study
of children in Hong Kong, however, found that the presence of celebrities
in advertisements could negatively affect the children’s perceptions of a
product if the children did not like the celebrity in question.
TPO14: Maya Water Problems
1. To understand the ancient Mayan people who lived in the area that is
today southern Mexico and Central America and the ecological difficulties they
faced, one must firstconsider their environment, which we think of as “jungle”
or “tropical rainforest.”
2. While that made things hard for ancient Maya living in the south, it has
also made things hard for modern archaeologists who have difficulty
understanding why ancientdroughts caused bigger problems in the wet south than
in the dry north.
3. Making matters worse, most of the Yucatan Peninsula consists of karst, a
porous sponge-like limestone terrain where rain runs straight into the ground
and where little or no surface water remains available.
4. The explanation is that the Maya excavated depressions, or modified
natural depressions, and then plugged up leaks in the karst by plastering the
bottoms of the depressions in order to create reservoirs, which collected rain
from large plastered catchment basins and stored it for use in the dry
TPO14: Pastoralism in Ancient Inner Eurasia
1. Archaeological evidence suggests that by 3000 B.C., and perhaps even
earlier, there had emerged on the steppes of Inner Eurasia the distinctive types
of pastoralism that were to dominate the region’s history for several
2. The remarkable mobility and range of pastoral societies explain, in
part, why so many linguists have argued that the Indo-European languages began
their astonishing expansionist career not among farmers in Anatolia (present-day
Turkey), but among early pastoralists from Inner Eurasia.
3. Such theories imply that the Indo-European languages evolved not in
Neolithic (10,000 to 3,000 B.C.) Anatolia, but among the foraging communities of
the cultures in the region of the Don and Dnieper rivers, which took up stock
breeding and began to exploit the neighboring steppes.
4. Inequalities of wealth and rank certainly exist, and have probably
existed in most pastoralist societies, but except in periods of military
conquest, they are normally too slight to generate the stable, hereditary
hierarchies that are usually implied by the use of the term class.
5. Inequalities of gender have also existed in pastoralist societies, but
they seem to havebeen softened by the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth in
most communities, and also by the requirement that women acquire most of the
skills of men, including, often,
their military skills